I've owned dogs since the 80's mostly males and mostly all intact. In the early 80's spay/neuter was just taking off but most people kept their dogs intact (and outside). I just never really was convinced that putting puppies through major surgery early in life was wise. So I never hopped on the bandwagon.

The two dogs I owned via rescue, one a lab female who was spayed at 6 months old and another a small breed dog male was neutered both experienced horrible behavior problems but then again it could just be from their early life but it always stuck with me in the back of my head. The neutered small breed humped constantly it was really disgusting, LOL!

I've never had problems with "roaming" which they tell you happens if you leave them intact. I did have one intact male that was dog aggressive but it ended up being caused by a thyroid imbalance and he also suffered from seizures. Knock on wood I've never had testicular cancer.

I think that there are just so many things that go into lifetime health of dogs. Diet, exercise, socialization etc all play a role in their overall lifetime health. I still do not believe it is wise to do major surgery on an otherwise healthy dog just to "prevent breeding". I've owned intact males most of my life and none of them have ever sired a litter. If you are really concerned about accidental breeding then do as the Europeans do and try vasectomy or tubal ligation both of which are far less risky procedures that prevent accidental litters. God gave them hormones and organs for a reason and who are we to remove them simply out of convenience?

My hope is that one day our country will shift away from recommending spay/neuter just based on all the recent science coming out about the procedures. I think one of the larger unaddressed problems that cause overpopulation is the ridiculously high cost of vet care/medications for dogs and the poor nutrition they receive from processed kibble diets which end up causing health problems. That and the rising rent prices across the country which basically force some people to give up their dogs since they can't afford to put food on their own table yet alone feed and care for a dog. Yes there are still unwanted accidental litters but I think the root of the problem is not uncontrolled reproduction and rather out of control costs of living. It's a vicious cycle and there is no easy fix.